Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder in which the body fights against its own secretary glands. Eventually, this leads to dry mouth, dry eyes, and vaginal dryness, along with a few other symptoms including extreme fatigue and arthritis.
Along with the above, they also experience symptoms that are common to all rheumatic diseases, such as pain, stiffness, poor body image, anxiety, lower libido, and treatment-related side effects.
The prevalence of depression and anxiety is high in adult people with Primary Sjögren’s syndrome, finds study. According to the study published in BMC Psychiatry oral health and swallowing disorders were the most important predictors of anxiety in people with Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS).
Therefore, when managing patients with pSS, rheumatologists should be aware of any potential mental comorbidities and lay the groundwork for mental health professionals to find efficient methods of preventing and treating depression and anxiety in adult pSS patients. Rheumatologists ought to concentrate on pSS patients’ dental health and swallowing issues at the same time.
What is Primary Sjögren’s syndrome?
An autoimmune systemic rheumatic condition called primary Sjögren’s syndrome is typified by dry mouth and eyes. Furthermore, pSS can result in additional glandular aspects, with patients reporting sensations of discomfort, exhaustion, anxiety, and sadness. It can also have a detrimental impact on psychological, physical, and social functioning, which may ultimately lower the quality of life associated with one’s health.
Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome and Depression and Anxiety
Being the most common subjective symptoms, sadness and anxiety can have a significant negative influence on the quality of life for people with post-stroke syndrome (pSS). These effects can include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, an increased risk of psychological problems, a working impairment, and the potential for illness flare-ups. Therefore, therapies meant to enhance the subjective health and quality of life of people with post-stroke syndrome (pSS) may find success in addressing sadness and anxiety.
Depression and/or anxiety might result in less therapy compliance and less physical activity, which can exacerbate illness and have a negative impact on health outcomes.
Adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (pSS) sometimes struggle with depression. Prolonged exhaustion, a decline in HR-QoL, a reduction in work productivity, increased levels of physical handicap, and medical expenses have all been linked to depression in individuals with post-stroke syndrome.
Interestingly, in pSS, anxiety was more common than depression. Additionally, pSS patients who are depressed have a worse prognosis, including several comorbidities.
To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of anxiety and depression
This study looked at the prevalence and features of anxiety and depression in people with Parkinson’s disease (pSS) and how these conditions related to other factors such as fatigue, pain, education, ocular surface disease, oral health, swallowing disorders, employment status, ESSPRI, and anxiety/depression. Additionally, we wanted to investigate potential risk factors for sadness and anxiety.
160 pSS patients and 170 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), self-administered questionnaires, and other tasks were performed by the participants. The data were analysed using multivariable stepwise logistic regression modelling, χ2 analysis, and independent samples t-tests.
Optimizing pain and depression management
Patients with depression showed greater disease activity ratings, higher unemployment rates, higher levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lower levels of education, and severe overall discomfort. Pain and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) can lead to poor coping strategies, limitations on one’s ability to work, and a lower quality of life, all of which may precipitate another depressive episode.
An elevated incidence of anxiety and despair was also linked to the intensity of pain. This research lends credence to the idea that pain and depression are mediated by one another and highlights the significance of elucidating the neurobiological connections to maximise the therapy of both conditions. Patient’s mental health, connections with family and HR-QoL are all impacted by pSS. In patients with post-stroke syndrome, fatigue has a substantial correlation with several psychological variables, such as anxiety and sadness.
Ocular dryness, dental health, and anxiety among pSS patients
Oral and ocular dryness are common long-term complaints in patients with pSS. Although the exact pathomechanism of post-stroke syndrome is still unknown, environmental stimuli are thought to cause aberrant immune responses in those who have a hereditary predisposition.
The pSS patients in our study reported significant anxiety and despair together with severe ocular expressions and indications of dry eye. Additionally, research indicates that patients with post-periodontic syndrome (pSS) have reduced salivary flow and a heightened risk of dental caries, as well as increased vulnerability to oral candidiasis, tooth loss, severe periodontal degradation, pararthria, tongue palpitations, angular cheilitis.
Due to their avoidant behaviours, anxious pSS persons frequently have worse dental health. In patients with post-stroke syndrome (pSS), oral dryness can impede speech, swallowing, and chewing. It can also result in a sensation of “choking,” which can be frightening.
Fortunately, hydroxychloroquine has been proven to relief people with pSS’s subjective oral symptoms. As a result, pharmaceutical therapy and routine dental exams are crucial for people with pSS.
Lower saliva secretion, swallowing difficulties, and its impact on mental health
Patients with pSS felt that their swallowing was difficult, and they produced much less saliva than controls. Furthermore, the severity of the disease and anxiety/depression in pSS patients are associated with a rise in dysphagia, highlighting the significance of better diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia.
Eating and drinking are significant components of social contact, hence dysphagic pSS patients frequently eat alone out of embarrassment. Additionally, they fear aspiration pneumonia or choking on their meal. Regular worries can exacerbate anxiety and further reduce life’s quality. Therefore, it’s critical to enhance the evaluation of the pSS patient’s swallowing function.
Programmes for education may aid in the early detection of the illness and reduce patients’ mental distress during its early stages. Furthermore, patients may experience relief from anxiety and sadness if they are educated about post-traumatic stress disorder (pSS).
Help is here:
Toll-Free Mental Health Rehabilitation Helpline Kiran (1800-599-0019)
Name of the Organisation: Indian Organization for Rare Diseases
(IORD) is an umbrella organization, representing the interests of all rare disease patients, patient support groups, health policy advocates, and health care providers extending support or working in the field of any of the undermentioned rare disease groups.
Name of the Organisation: Vandrevala Foundation
Vandrevala Foundation is a non-profit that partners with organizations to help communities thrive by providing education and healthcare. Vandrevala Foundation launched a mental health helpline in India in 2009 to offer free psychological counselling and crisis mediation to anyone who is experiencing distress due to depression, trauma, mood disorders, chronic illness, and relationship conflict.
Contact: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Telephone: +91 9999 666 555