May 08, 2023; Unhurry Expert Research Team
In This Article
According to WHO’s latest estimates, suicide remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
Every year, more people die as a result of suicide than HIV, malaria or breast cancer ̶ or war and homicide. In 2019, more than 700 000 people died by suicide: one in every 100 deaths.
This has prompted WHO to bring forth new guidance to help countries improve suicide prevention and care.
Must not ignore suicide
“We cannot – and must not – ignore suicide,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization.
“Each one is a tragedy. Our attention to suicide prevention is even more important now, after many months living with the COVID-19 pandemic, with many of the risk factors for suicide ̶ job loss, financial stress and social isolation – still very much present.
The new guidance that WHO is releasing today provides a clear path for stepping up suicide prevention efforts,” added Ghebreyesus.
Suicide, a death cause in young people too
Among young people aged 15-29, suicide was the fourth leading cause of death after road injury, tuberculosis and interpersonal violence.
These rates vary, between countries, regions, and between males and females.
Suicide rates among males higher
Suicide is more prevalent among males than females as, more than twice as many males die due to suicide as females (12.6 per 100 000 males compared with 5.4 per 100 000 females).
Suicide rates in high-income countries higher
Suicide rates among men are generally higher in high-income countries (16.5 per 100 000). For females, the highest suicide rates are found in lower-middle-income countries (7.1 per 100 000).
Suicide rates in the WHO African (11.2 per 100 000), European (10.5 per 100 000) and South-East Asia (10.2 per 100 000) regions were higher than the global average (9.0 per 100 000) in 2019.
The lowest suicide rate was in the Eastern Mediterranean region (6.4 per 100 000).
Contrasting trends in Americas and rest of the world
While, globally, the suicide rate is decreasing; in the Americas it is going up. Suicide rates fell in the 20 years between 2000 and 2019, with the global rate decreasing by 36%, with decreases ranging from 17% in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 47% in the European Region and 49% in the Western Pacific.
But in the same period, the rates in Americas Region increased by 17%.
Suicide prevention high on agenda
Although some countries have placed suicide prevention high on their agendas, too many countries remain uncommitted.
Currently only 38 countries are known to have a national suicide prevention strategy.
A significant acceleration in the reduction of suicides is needed to meet the SDG target of a one-third reduction in the global suicide rate by 2030.
WHO guidelines for suicide prevention
In order to support countries in their efforts in suicide prevention, WHO released a comprehensive guidance for implementing its LIVE LIFE approach to suicide prevention.
The approach includes the following four strategies:
- Limiting access to the means of suicide, such as highly hazardous pesticides and firearms;
- Educating the media on responsible reporting of suicide;
- Fostering socio-emotional life skills in adolescents; and early identification, assessment, management and follow-up of anyone affected by suicidal thoughts and behaviour.
- Banning of the most dangerous pesticides: a high-impact intervention
Limiting access to hazardous pesticides
WHO has recommended national bans of acutely toxic, highly hazardous pesticides as pesticide poisoning is estimated to cause 20% of all suicides.
Other measures include restricting access to firearms, reducing the size of medication packages, and installing barriers at jump sites.
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Responsible reporting by the media
Media reports of suicide can lead to a rise in suicide due to imitation (or copycat suicides) – especially if the report is about a celebrity or describes the method of suicide.
The new guide advises monitoring of the reporting of suicide and suggests that media counteract reports of suicide with stories of successful recovery from mental health challenges or suicidal thoughts.
It also recommends working with social media companies to increase their awareness and improve their protocols for identifying and removing harmful content.
Support for adolescents
Adolescence (10-19 years of age) is a critical period for acquiring socio-emotional skills, particularly since half of mental health conditions appear before 14 years of age.
WHO’s LIVE LIFE guidance for suicide prevention encourages actions including mental health promotion and anti-bullying programmes, links to support services and clear protocols for people working in schools and universities when suicide risk is identified.
Early identification and follow-up of people at risk
Early identification, assessment, management and follow-up applies to people who have attempted suicide or are perceived to be at risk.
A previous suicide attempt is one of the most important risk factors for a future suicide.
Health-care workers need to be trained in early identification, assessment, management and follow-up. Survivors’ groups of people bereaved by suicide can complement support provided by health services.
Crisis services should also be available to provide immediate support to individuals in acute distress.
Suicide prevention interventions
The new guidance, which includes examples of suicide prevention interventions that have been implemented across the world, in countries such as Australia, Ghana, Guyana, India, Iraq, the Republic of Korea, Sweden and the USA, can be used by anyone who is in interested in implementing suicide prevention activities, whether at national or local level, and in the governmental and nongovernmental sectors alike.
Dr Alexandra Fleischmann, suicide prevention expert at the World Health Organization said, “While a comprehensive national suicide prevention strategy should be the ultimate goal for all governments, starting suicide prevention with LIVE LIFE interventions can save lives and prevent the heartbreak that follows for those left behind.”
Find Help Here:
Name of the Organisation: Aasra
AASRA volunteers conduct workshops on different levels with high-risk target groups eg school, college students, highly-stressed employees of call centres, financial institutions, multinationals etc. AASRA volunteers have Outreach programs to reach out to the multitudes who may choose to end their lives because of chronic suffering or terminal illness.
Contact: email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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